Common green capsid (Lygocoris pabulinus (Linnaeus))
Adult common green capsid
Capsid damage to red Charles Ross fruit
Common green capsid is a widespread and abundant readily recognised insect and, in some years, is an important pest of apple and pear.
The life cycle involves overwintering as eggs inserted by adults into the tender shoots of woody plants in the autumn. Rootstock sucker growths, especially at the edges of orchards where the pest is usually most abundant, often harbour the pest and should be removed in winter.
A spray of an approved insecticide should be applied promptly at petal fall if damaging infestations are detected.
- Thiacloprid (Calypso) applied for control of rosy apple aphid at this stage will control capsids as well as other petal fall pests including apple sawfly.
- A full approval for spirotetramat (Batavia) on apples for the control of sucking insect pests will offer some control of common green capsid, but growers may prefer to reserve its use for more difficult to control pests such as woolly aphid or rosy apple aphid. It must be applied after flowering and works best when pests are moving from brown wood to green tissue. It will prevent population build-up but does not offer pest ‘knockdown’.
- Several other novel insecticides recently approved for control of aphids on apple and/or pear in the UK may have useful activity against capsid bugs including acetamiprid (Gazelle), flonicamid (Teppeki, Mainman) and pyrethrins (Spruzit).
Insecticides approved for use on apple that are recommended to control or are likely to offer incidental control of capsids, when applied to control other pests.
Choice of insecticides – efficacy factors
|Active ingredient||Trade name (examples)||Class1||Selectivity||Approved for control of||Safety to Typhs|
|deltamethrin||Decis etc.||pyrethroid||broad spectrum||Aphids, apple sucker, capsids, codling & tortrix moths, sawfly||harmful|
|flonicamid||Mainman, Teppeki||feeding blocker aphicide||selective||Aphids||safe|
|thiacloprid||Calypso||chloro-nicotinyl||broad-spectrum, systemic||Rosy apple aphid. (Also likely to control capsids and sawfly, though not caterpillars or woolly aphid)||safe|
|pyrethrins||Spruzit||extract from pyrethrrum||Broad-spectrum||Aphids, apple blossom weevil, catepillars, spider mites||harmful|
|spirotetramat||Batavia||tetramic acid derivative||selective||Sucking insect pests||unclassified|
Choice of insecticides – Safety factors
Read and fllow label before applying any sprays
|Hazards3||Harvest interval(days)||Max. no. sprays||Buffer zoneWidth (m)|
|Anticholin-esterase?||Humans||Fish & aquatic life||Bees|
|spirotetramat||no||h,i||t||u||Start of ripening||2||sm|
|h=harmful, i=irritant, d=dangerous, ed=extremely dangerous, t=toxic, c=closed cab required for air assisted sprayers, u=uncategorised/unclassified/unspecified|
Control in organic orchards
Greater emphasis should be placed on cultural and biological control methods in organic orchards.
- Pyrethrins (Spruzit) is approved for use in organic orchards but permission should be sought from certification bodies before use.
- It is of short persistence and probably of limited activity.
- One or more sprays should be directed against the pest shortly before and/or shortly after blossom.
- Pyrethrins is harmful to the orchard predatory mite Typhlodromus pyri, so use in organic orchards should be avoided if possible.
- Neem extract does have an effect and is used in other European countries for control in organic orchards.