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Fruit tree red spider mite (Panonychus ulmi (Koch))

Overwintering fruit tree spider mite eggs

Adult fruit tree red spider mite

Fruit tree red spider mite is an important secondary pest of apple.

The varieties Discovery, Gala and Worcester Pearmain are highly susceptible to fruit tree red spider mite.

Fruit tree red spider mite has a simple life cycle, overwintering as eggs on the bark, mainly around fruiting spurs. Eggs hatch in late April or May, around blossom time of apple. Young mites then invade the leaves and trusses.

There are five or six successive generations of adults, mainly on the undersides of leaves, before eggs are laid on bark in the autumn.  All stages are readily recognised.

The pest is seldom a problem in orchards where the orchard predatory mite Typhlodorums pyri is established.  It is important to regularly monitor levels of the pest and the preadator.

The presence of high populations of fruit tree red spider mite which causes leaf bronzing damage and fruit russeting is an indication of failure of proper integrated mite management. The predatory mite should be introduced, by transferring summer prunings in summer to newly planted orchards and to orchards where it is absent.

Pesticides harmful to the orchard predatory mite should not be used except as a last resort, as they cause outbreaks of rust and spider mites.

Chemical control

  • Where high populations of overwintering eggs occur, a high volume spray of clofentezine (Apollo) should be applied before blossom and before hatching of overwintering eggs commences.
  • Where damaging populations occur after blossom, a spray of abamectin (Agrimec), spirodiclofen (Envidor) or tebufenpyrad (Masai) should be applied.
  • An emergency authorisation for Movento Top for the control of woolly aphid (which lasts until 29 August, 2017) may suppress fruit tree red spider mite.

 

Insecticides, acaricides and fungicides approved for use on apple which are recommended to control fruit tree red spider mite or offer some incidental control when applied to control other pests or diseases

Choice of products – efficacy factors

Active ingredient Trade name (examples) Class Selectivity Approved for control of Safety to Typhs 
abamectin Agrimec acaricide selective Flat scarlet mite u
clofentezine Apollo acaricide, ovicidal selective Winter eggs of fruit tree red spider mite on apple safe
pyrethrins Spruzit extract from pyrethrum broad spectrum Aphids, blossom weevil, caterpillars, spider mites u
spirodiclofen Envidor ketoenol insecticide and acaricide partially selective Spider mites, rust mites,  mussel scale harmful
spirotetramat (120-day authorisation lasts until 29/08/17) Movento Top tetramic acid derivative selective Woolly aphid unclassified
sulphur various fungicide & acaricide selective Scab and mildew on apples and pears. Gall mite on black-currants. inter-mediate
tebufenpyrad Masai acaricide and aphicide selective Red spider mite in apples and pears. u

Choice of insecticides – Safety factors

Read the label before applying any sprays

Hazards Harvest interval(days)  Max. no. sprays or dose Buffer zoneWidth (m)
Anticholin-esterase?  Humans Fish & aquatic life Bees
abamectin no h t ed u 2 40
clofentezine no u h u 35 1 u
pyrethrins no h, i ed d 0 4 50
spirodiclofen no h h d 14 1 30
spirotetramat no h, i t u 21 2 5
sulphur no u u u 0 Varies with product u
tebufenpyrad* no h ed d 7 u 18
Keys: d=dangerous, e=risk of serious damage to eyes, ed=extremely dangerous, h=harmful, ir=irritant,  t=toxic u=unspecified or unclassifiedCSI=chitin synthesis inhibitor* not recommended for use with hand-held sprayers

 

Control in organic orchards

Emphasis should be placed on natural control by the orchard predatory mite Typhlodromus pyri (see ‘Cultural and biological control’ .

  • Application of foliar sprays of fatty acids (Savona) or rotenone (Derris), which are harmful to the predatory mite, should be avoided unless absolutely necessary.
  • Programmes of sprays of sulphur to control scab and mildew can also be harmful to the predatory mite though populations tolerant of the sulphur appear to develop eventually.

 

Further reading