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Fruit tree tortrix moth (Archips podana (Scolopi)

Adult fruit tree tortrix moth

Fruit tree tortrix moth larva

Small holes in fruits caused by tortrix larval feeding

Surface grazing to fruits by fruit tree tortrix moth larvae

Fruit tree tortrix moth is a moderately important pest of apples and pears in the UK.

The life cycle is simple with the pest overwintering as a second or third instar larva which emerges in spring after bud burst and feeds on the trusses. Pupation occurs after blossom and first generation adults fly in June and early July.

Eggs are laid in batches on foliage and hatch after 2-3 weeks. Adults are readily recognised but larvae may be confused with other caterpillar species.

Larvae feed in leaf rolls and on the surface of fruits making the characteristic damage of small holes in the flesh.  Later in the season, near to harvest, larvae make larger surface excavations in the flesh of fruits. There is a partial second generation in August and September.

The pest should be monitored with pheromone traps weekly from petal fall of apple to the end of August. The economic threshold for treatment is >30 moths per trap per week.

Control

Several insecticides are approved for control of tortrix moth and/or other caterpillars on apple and/or pear in the UK.

  • The pest may be controlled with a spray of Bacillus thuringiensis (Dipel),  indoxacarb (Steward), methoxyfenozide (Runner) or spinosad (Tracer), applied to coincide with egg hatch usually in late June or July about 2 weeks after the threshold pheromone trap catch is exceeded.
  • Diflubenzuron (Dimilin), a selective insecticide, is also effective against fruit tree tortrix moth.
  • It should be applied at the start of egg laying, i.e. as soon as the pheromone trap threshold is exceeded. It is not effective against the summer fruit tortrix moth.
  • Synthetic pyrethroids are highly effective but their use should be avoided as they are harmful to predatory mites and other beneficial insects.
  • Diflubenzuron (Dimilin), indoxacarb (Steward), methoxyfenozide (Runner) or spinosad (Tracer) will also control codling moth.
  • Codling moth flies slightly earlier than fruit tree tortrix moth but sprays of these insecticides applied for codling moth usually also give good control of fruit tree tortrix moth.
  • Chlorantraniliprole (Coragen) is also thought to offer incidental control when applied against codling moth.
  • The juvenile hormone analogue insect growth regulator fenoxycarb (Insegar) applied 2‑3 weeks after petal fall will also control fruit tree tortrix, though it is not specifically recommended for this purpose.
  • Delaying the spray until after petal fall will reduce the efficacy of fenoxycarb (Insegar) against summer fruit tortrix against which it is specifically used and recommended.

 

Insecticides approved for use on apple which are recommended to control fruit tree tortrix moth or offer some incidental control when applied to control other pests

Choice of insecticides – efficacy factors

Active ingredient Trade name (examples) Class1 Selectivity Label rec’s2 Safety to Typhs  Suggested intervalbetweensprays

(days)

Bacillus thuringiensis Dipel bacterialinsecticide selective to caterpillars c (SOLA) safe 7
chlorantraniliprole Coragen anthranilic diamide selective c safe 14
cypermethrin various pyrethroid broad spectrum c, cm, t harmful none stipulated
deltamethrin Decis pyrethroid broad spectrum cm, t harmful none stipulated
diflubenzuron Dimilin CSI selective c, cm, ftt safe none stipulated
fenoxycarb Insegar JHA selective sft safe none stipulated
indoxacarb Steward oxadiazine selective c, cm, ftt, sft u 10
methoxyfenozide Runner MAC selective c safe u
pyrethrins Spruzit extract from pyrethrum broad spectrum c harmful 7
spinosad Tracer neural blocker selective c, cm, ftt,sft safe u

Choice of insecticides – Safety factor

Read and and follow the label before applying any sprays

Hazards2 Harvest interval(days)  Max. no. sprays Buffer zoneWidth (m)
Anticholin-esterase?  Humans Fish & aquatic life Bees
Bacillus thuringiensis no u u u 0 u u
chlorantraniliprole no h ed h 14 2 10
cypermethrin no h, i ed d 0 4 18
deltamethrin no h, i ed d 7 u 50
diflubenzuron no u u u 14 2 20
indoxacarb no h ed u 7 3 15
fenoxycarb no u d d 42 u 8
methoxyfenozide no u u u 14 3 5
pyrethrins no h, i ed d 0 4 50
spinosad no u ed u 7 4 40
Keys:     1CSI=chitin synthesis inhibitor, JHA=juvenile hormone analogue 2c=caterpillars, ftt=fruit tree tortrix, sft=summer fruit tortrix,  t=tortrix 3d=dangerous, ed=extremely dangerous, h=harmful, i=irritant,  t=toxic, u=no hazard specified

 

Control in organic orchards

Fruit tree tortrix moth often causes significant fruit damage in organic orchards.

  • If control measures are necessary, sprays of Bacillus thuringiensis (Dipel) or, if it is permitted in organic production, spinosad (Tracer) should be applied in the same way as in conventional orchards (see ‘Biological and chemical control’ ).

 

Further reading