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Optimal storage conditions

Pre-cooling

Pre-cooling is the term used to describe the extraction of field heat from the crops prior to storage. The advantages of pre-cooling are the rapid cooling of produce to storage temperature and a reduced demand on the main store cooling capacity.

  • Forced air-cooling uses the principle that the rate of heat transfer from product to air increases with increasing air speed.
  • With this technique a high-speed current of cold air is directed on to the product.
  • It is possible to adapt most apple stores for use as forced air coolers using a plenum or tarpaulin sheet.
  • The practice of leaving fruit out over night to cool should be avoided.
  • On cold nights in September the air is usually still thus there is no air movement around the fruit and thus very little cooling effect.
  • The cold night air does increase the efficiency of the condenser and thereby increases the rate that heat can be transferred from the product to the outside air

Duration of storage and storage conditions

Generally, the longer that fruit are held in store the more susceptible they become to rotting by fungi and to superficial scald and calcium-dependent disorders such as bitter pit. It is particularly important to avoid storing fruit to the point where their resistance to rotting is lowered.

  • It is important to market fruit within the periods suggested for any particular storage condition and to monitor fruit regularly in order to gain advance warning of significant rot development or deterioration in fruit quality.
  • CA conditions will not prevent infection of fruit in store although the composition of the atmosphere can influence the degree of rotting in store.
  • In Cox, CA conditions that are low in oxygen and high in carbon dioxide are more conducive to rotting than low oxygen only. Growers should ensure that Cox apples for medium or long-term storage are kept in low oxygen/low carbon dioxide conditions particularly where there is a history of rot problems.
  • Fruit harvested from Bramley orchards seriously affected by Nectria canker should not be stored in 5% CO2 + 1% O2 (5/1) due to an aggravated development of Nectria fruit rots.

 

Ensure that the most appropriate conditions are used for the period of storage that is anticipated. Termination dates that are recommended should be a guide only since the quality of consignments in store is likely to vary from orchard to orchard and from season to season.

Optimal quality can only be achieved by ensuring that consignments have adequate storage potential with respect to mineral composition and maturity at harvest.

Careful monitoring of fruit condition throughout the storage period is required to ensure that quality retention is in line with expectations.  Those responsible for the storage of fruit should be fully aware of the notes that are included in the recommendations issued by East Malling Research (EMR) since these may be vital in achieving a successful outcome.

Information provided in this Section should be consistent with that provided in the wall chart (‘UK Storage Recommendations for Tree Fruit’) which was revised and published by AHDB in 2016 and mailed to all UK tree fruit levy payers.

It is difficult to set precise termination dates for the storage of any cultivar, as there are so many variables involved. Provided the fruit has adequate storage potential, the termination dates that are advised should result in quality product. It is essential that:

Stores are loaded in 2-3 days and the operating temperatures are achieved within 5 days of the start of loading.

The delay between picking and the start of cooling does not exceed 24 hours.

Final CA conditions are achieved within 14 days of the start of loading unless indicated otherwise.

Independent checks of store CO2 and O2 levels should be made regularly using portable analysers and drawing atmosphere sample direct from the store.

Storage conditions recommended for major apple cultivars in the UK

The latest recommended conditions for the storage of the major apple cultivars and some of the more popular traditional cultivars grown in the UK are provided in the tables below.

Recommendations for the major cultivars are generally unchanged from those published by Johnson in 1998(a) and in the previous version of the Best Practice Guide for UK Apple Production.  However, advice is given for the first time on the storage of ‘Club’ cultivars such as Jazz, Kanzi and Rubens, in some cases based on experience abroad.

Growers that require information on other traditional cultivars should refer to earlier recommendations (Sharples and Stow, 1986). However, it should be borne in mind that these older recommendations relate to an era when quality requirements differed significantly from those demanded currently by retailers and consumers.

Current emphasis is on achieving a high standard of eating quality in addition to high visual quality and freedom from diseases and disorders. Formerly the provision of sound fruit from storage was the primary objective with a heavy reliance on variety name as a selling point in the market.

Consequently the use of older recommendations may not provide fruit of suitable quality for the period of time indicated. It is relatively recently that storage in oxygen concentrations below 2% (‘ultra-low oxygen’) has become widely practised.

More recently recommendations based on elevated levels of carbon dioxide in combination with ‘ultra-low oxygen’ have been introduced. Only current commercial cultivars have been tested under these stringent CA regimes.

The industry should follow future research developments very carefully.

Braeburn and clones

 

Recommended storage conditions for Braeburn and clones

Air storage
With SmartFreshSM
Temp. oC Terminate Terminate Notes
0.5 December Do not use

 

Controlled atmosphere – Using a scrubber
          With SmartFreshSM
Temp. oC % CO2 % O2 Terminate Notes Terminate Notes
1.5 – 2.0 <1 2 March 1, 2, 3 Do not use
1.5 – 2.0 <1 1.2 March 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 Do not use

Do not use elevated CO2 only (un-scrubbed CA).

Notes:

  1. Seal stores after fruit has cooled to the final holding temperature. Wait 21 days before sealing CA stores. Alternatively, allow respiration to pull down O2 to 2%. Do not accelerate by the use of nitrogen flushing. Where it is intended to use the 1.2% O2 level, allow respiration to pull down O2 to 2%, hold at 2% for 10 days then drop to 1.2% by fruit respiration.
  2. CO2 concentrations should be maintained below 1% throughout storage to reduce the risk of BBD.
  3. Ensure that O2 level does not fall below 1.7% when controlling manually at 2% O2. Aim to keep a mean of 2%.
  4. This recommendation was made as a result of AHDB Horticulture Project TF 175 using the Hillwell clone of Braeburn. It is unknown whether other clones are suitable for this regime.
  5. This lower oxygen regime may induce Braeburn browning disorder or brownheart and growers should test the regime before implementing it on a wide scale.
  6. Late picked fruit is likely to respond adversely and may develop CO2 related injuries.

 

Bramley’s Seedling

 

Recommended storage conditions for Bramley’s Seedling

Air storage
    With SmartFreshSM  
Temp. oC Terminate Terminate Notes
2 – 3.0 Mid October – Late October December  1

 

Controlled atmosphere – No scrubber
        With SmartFreshSM
Temp. oC % CO2 Terminate Notes Terminate Notes
4 – 4.5 9 -10 March 1, 2

 

Controlled atmosphere – Using a scrubber
          With SmartFreshSM
Temp. oC % CO2 % O2 Terminate Notes Terminate Notes
4.0 – 4.5 6 2 March July 1, 3, 4, 6,
4.0 – 4.5 5 1 March August 1, 3, 5, 6, 7,

Notes

  1. SmartFreshSM – Please refer to the SmartFreshSM recommendations issued each year by AgroFresh for the latest varietal information.
  2. Wait 21 days before sealing the store.
  3. Remove CO2 for 21 days after SmartFreshSM application.
  4. Best for orchards with a history of Nectria rots.
  5. Best for bitter pit control.
  6. Scrubbed stores can be sealed immediately providing CO2 is maintained at <1% and  O2 maintained at >10% for 21 days following SmartFreshSM application.
  7. For late storage until August, pick and apply SmartFreshSM within 4 days and ensure that background ethylene levels in the store are below 0.9 ppm at the time of application.

 

 Cameo

 

Recommended storage conditions for Cameo

Air storage
    With SmartFreshSM  
Temp. oC Terminate Terminate Notes
0.5 – 1.0 Late November Late November  1

 

Controlled atmosphere – Using a scrubber
          With SmartFreshSM
Temp. oC % CO2 % O2 Terminate Notes Terminate Notes
1.5 <1 1.5 June 2 June 1, 3

Only limited research has been carried out on Cameo in the UK. Recommendations are based on commercial experience in the UK. There are no recommendations for storage in elevated CO2 (un-scrubbed) only.

Notes:

  1. SmartFreshSM – Please refer to the SmartFreshSM recommendations issued each year by AgroFresh for the latest varietal information.
  2. For operation at 1.5% O2 use automatic equipment to control O2 within the range 1.4-1.6%.
  3. Better flavour reported.

 

 Cox’s Orange Pippin and clones

 

Recommended storage conditions for Cox’s Orange Pippin and clones

Air storage
    With SmartFreshSM  
Temp. oC Terminate Terminate Notes
1.5 – 2.0 Mid October December 1, 9

 

Controlled atmosphere – No scrubber
        With SmartFreshSM
Temp. oC % CO2 Terminate Notes Terminate Notes
3.5 – 4.0 5 Early December 2, 3 December 1, 3, 9

 

Controlled atmosphere – Using a scrubber
          With SmartFreshSM
Temp. oC % CO2 % O2 Terminate Notes Terminate Notes
3.5 – 4.0 5 3 Late January 2, 3 Late January 1, 9, 10
3.5 – 4.0 <1 2 Late February 4 Late February 1, 9, 10
3.5 – 4.0 <1 1.2 Late March 5, 6, 7, 8 Late March 1, 9, 10

Notes:

  1. SmartFreshSM – Please refer to the SmartFreshSM recommendations issued each year by AgroFresh for the latest varietal information.
  2. Ensure that the recommended CO2 level is not exceeded by more than 0.5%.
  3. There is a risk of core flush in 5% CO2 regimes, particularly after cool growing seasons. Longer storage is possible in years of low core flush risk.
  4. Ensure that O2 level does not fall below 1.7% when controlling manually at 2% O2, aim to keep a mean of 2%.
  5. For operation at 1.2% O2 use automatic equipment to control O2 within the range 1.1-1.3%.
  6. Operate store at 2% O2 for at least one week before lowering to 1.2% O2.
  7. Restrict storage in 1.2% O2 to Cox of good storage potential. In particular store only those fruit with calcium levels above 5 mg 100g-1 and potassium levels below 150 mg 100g-1. Avoid late picking.  
  8. After cool summers maintain minimum fruit temperature of 4oC (39oF) to reduce risk of low temperature breakdown.
  9. Early picked fruit treated with SmartFreshSM at risk from russet browning. Treat fruit when starch coverage is below 70% and avoid temperature fluctuations before and after treatment.
  10. Risk of core flush after January. Longer storage is possible in years of low core flush risk. To maximise storage period use 1.2% O2 and maintain CO2 levels below 1% for the entire storage period.

 

Discovery

 

Recommended storage conditions for Discovery

Air storage
    With SmartFreshSM  
Temp. oC Terminate Terminate Notes
1.5 – 2.0 10 days Variable response 1, 2

 

Controlled atmosphere – No scrubber
        With SmartFreshSM
Temp. oC % CO2 Terminate Notes Terminate Notes
1.5 – 2.0 8 45 days 2, 3, 6 Variable response  1, 7

 

Controlled atmosphere – Using a scrubber
          With SmartFreshSM
Temp. oC % CO2 % O2 Terminate Notes Terminate Notes
1.5 – 2.0 <1 2 45 days 2, 4, 5, 6 Variable response 1,  7

Notes:

  1. SmartFreshSM – Please refer to the SmartFreshSM recommendations issued each year by AgroFresh for the latest varietal information.
  2. Cool quickly, preferably with forced-air pre-cooler.
  3. Establish high CO2 by adding dry ice to store.
  4. Establish low O2 by nitrogen injection.
  5. Ensure that O2 level does not fall below 1.7% when controlling manually at 2% O2, aim to keep a mean of 2%.
  6. The maximum post-storage life is only 4-5 days.
  7. Apply SmartFreshSM within 3 days of picking.

 

Egremont Russet

 

Recommended storage conditions for Egremont Russet

Air storage
With SmartFreshSM
Temp. oC Terminate Terminate Notes
3.5 – 4.0 December December  1

 

Controlled atmosphere – No scrubber
With SmartFreshSM
Temp. oC % CO2 Terminate Notes Terminate Notes
3.0 – 3.5 6 – 8 January 2, 3 February 1, 4

 

Controlled atmosphere – Using a scrubber
With SmartFreshSM
Temp. oC % CO2 % O2 Terminate Notes Terminate Notes
3.0 – 3.5 5 3 Early March 2, 3, 5 March 1, 4
3.0 – 3.5 5 1.2 April* 2, 3, 5, 6, 7 April 1, 4

*The authors are grateful to Worldwide Fruit Ltd for generously agreeing to the release of results of trials with the 5% CO2 + 1.2% O2 regime conducted originally by Home Grown Fruits Ltd.

Notes:

  1. SmartFreshSM – Please refer to the SmartFreshSM recommendations issued each year by AgroFresh for the latest varietal information.
  2. Risk of shrivel; reduce by loosely covering the top layer of fruit in each bin with polythene.
  3. Fruit may soften rapidly after storage and prompt marketing is advised. Use cool temperatures during holding and distribution of graded fruit.  
  4. Do not use SmartFreshSM on early-picked fruit for pre-Christmas sales.
  5. Ensure that the recommended CO2 level is not exceeded by more than 0.5%.
  6. For operation at 1.2% O2 use automatic equipment to control O2 within the range 1.1-1.3%.
  7. Where fruit in store is sufficiently firm raise the O2 level to 2-3% a month before opening the store in order to improve flavour.  

 

Empire

 

Recommended storage conditions for Empire

Air storage
With SmartFreshSM
Temp. oC Terminate Terminate Notes
3.5 – 4.0 Not set December  1, 4

 

Controlled atmosphere – Using a scrubber
With SmartFreshSM
Temp. oC % CO2 % O2 Terminate Notes Terminate Notes
3.5 – 4.0 <1 2 February 2, 3, March 1, 2, 3, 4

Limited storage research has been carried out on Empire in the UK. There are no recommendations for storage in elevated CO2 (un-scrubbed) only.

Notes:

  1. SmartFreshSM – Please refer to the SmartFreshSM recommendations issued each year by AgroFresh for the latest varietal information.
  2. Ensure that O2 level does not fall below 1.7% when controlling manually at 2% O2, aim to keep a mean of 2%.
  3.  CO2 concentration should be kept below 0.5% for the first 3 weeks of storage.
  4. Provisional recommendations based on U.S.A experience.

 

Envy

 

Recommended storage conditions for Envy

Air storage
With SmartFreshSM
Temp. oC Terminate Terminate Notes
0.5 Late January Few results  1, 2

 

Controlled atmosphere – Using a scrubber
With SmartFreshSM
Temp. oC % CO2 % O2 Terminate Notes Terminate Notes
0.5 <0.7 3 Late March 1, 2 Few results 1, 2

 

Notes:

  1. SmartFreshSM – Please refer to the SmartFreshSM recommendations issued each year by AgroFresh for the latest varietal information.
  2. Step wise reduction in temperature over 14 days. Keep in air for 21 days, scrub CO2 (<0.7% CO2).

 

Falstaff

 

Recommended storage conditions for Falstaff

Air storage
With SmartFreshSM
Temp. oC Terminate Terminate Notes
1.0 – 1.5 January Few results

 

There is no research experience with CA storage in the UK.

 

 Gala and clones

 

Recommended storage conditions for Gala and clones

Air storage
With SmartFreshSM
Temp. oC Terminate Terminate Notes
0.5 Mid December Mid January  1

 

Controlled atmosphere – No scrubber
With SmartFreshSM
Temp. oC % CO2 Terminate Notes Terminate Notes
0.5 8 Early November February (no more than 5% CO2)  1, 2

 

Controlled atmosphere – Using a scrubber
With SmartFreshSM
Temp. oC % CO2 % O2 Terminate Notes Terminate Notes
0.5 <1 2 Late December 3 Early February  1
0.5 <1 1.2 Mid February 4 Mid March  1
0.5 5 1 Late March 5 Early June  1, 6, 7
0.5 3 1 – 2 Early June 1, 6, 7, 8

Notes:

  1. SmartFreshSM – Please refer to the SmartFreshSM recommendations issued each year by AgroFresh for the latest varietal information.
  2. Fruit treated with SmartFreshSM and stored in CA conditions without a scrubber should be held in 5% CO2. Maintain 5% CO2 by venting.
  3. Ensure that O2 level does not fall below 1.7% when controlling manually at 2% O2, aim to keep a mean of 2%.
  4. For operation at 1.2% O2 use automatic equipment to control O2.
  5. Ensure that the recommended CO2 level is not exceeded by more than 0.5%.
  6. Do not treat Gala harvested with more than 85% starch coverage with SmartFreshSM.
  7. Long-term storage is dependent on harvest maturity, quality of fruit at harvest, picking date and control of rots. Regular store monitoring is essential.
  8. Better retention of flavour late in season. Increased risk of senescent breakdown in late picked fruit stored beyond end of March.

 

Golden Delicious

 

Recommended storage conditions for Golden Delicious

Air storage
With SmartFreshSM
Temp. oC Terminate Terminate Notes
1.5 – 2.0 January January  1

 

Controlled atmosphere – No scrubber
With SmartFreshSM
Temp. oC % CO2 Terminate Notes Terminate Notes
1.5 – 3.5 8 April 2, 3 Few results

 

Controlled atmosphere – Using a scrubber
With SmartFreshSM
Temp. oC % CO2 % O2 Terminate Notes Terminate Notes
1.5 – 3.5 5 3 April 2, 4, 5 May  1

 

There is no recent storage research to evaluate the response of Golden Delicious to low oxygen (1-1.5%) conditions.

Notes:

  1. SmartFreshSM – Please refer to the SmartFreshSM recommendations issued each year by AgroFresh for the latest varietal information.
  2. Risk of scald
  3. Risk of core flush and breakdown after cool seasons at store temperatures below 3.5oC in 8% CO2.
  4. Risk of core flush and breakdown after cool seasons at store temperatures below 1.5oC in air or 5% CO2 + 3% O2.
  5. Ensure that the recommended CO2 level is not exceeded by more than 0.5%.

 

Idared

 

Recommended storage conditions for Idared

Air storage
With SmartFreshSM
Temp. oC Terminate Terminate Notes
3.5 – 4.0 Not set Few results

 

Controlled atmosphere – No scrubber
With SmartFreshSM
Temp. oC % CO2 Terminate Notes Terminate Notes
3.5 – 4.0 8 April 1 Few results

 

Controlled atmosphere – Using a scrubber
With SmartFreshSM
Temp. oC % CO2 % O2 Terminate Notes Terminate Notes
3.5 – 4.0 5 3 May 1, 4 Few results
3.5 – 4.0 <1 1-1.2 May 1, 2, 3 Few results

Notes:

  1. Risk of core flush during distribution through the market.
  2. Risk of Jonathan spot in 1-1.2% O2 after hot summers.
  3. Preferred CA condition is <1%  CO2 + 1% O2.
  4. Ensure that the recommended CO2 level is not exceeded by more than 0.5%.

 

Jazz

 

Recommended storage conditions for Jazz

Air storage
With SmartFreshSM
Temp. oC Terminate Terminate Notes
0.5 – 0.8 Late January 1

 

Controlled atmosphere – Using a scrubber
With SmartFreshSM
Temp. oC % CO2 % O2 Terminate Notes Terminate Notes
0.5 – 0.8 2 2 April 1, 2 Few results
0.5 – 0.8 1 – 1.5 1.5 – 1.8 April 1, 3 Few results

 

Notes:

  1. Exclusive to Worldwide Fruit Ltd. Recommendations based on New Zealand and French experience.
  2. Ensure that O2 level does not fall below 1.7% when controlling manually at 2% O2, aim to keep a mean of 2%.
  3. For operation at 1.5 to 1.8% O2 use automatic equipment to control O2 within the range.

 

Jonagold and clones

 

Recommended storage conditions for Jonagold and clones

Air storage
With SmartFreshSM
Temp. oC Terminate Terminate Notes
0 – 0.5 January January  1

 

Controlled atmosphere – No scrubber
With SmartFreshSM
Temp. oC % CO2 Terminate Notes Terminate Notes
1.5 – 2.0 8 April April  1

 

Controlled atmosphere – Using a scrubber
With SmartFreshSM
Temp. oC % CO2 % O2 Terminate Notes Terminate Notes
1.5 – 2.0 4 1.2 July 2, 3 July  1

 

Notes:

  1. SmartFreshSM – Please refer to the SmartFreshSM recommendations issued each year by AgroFresh for the latest varietal information.
  2. Ensure that the recommended CO2 level is not exceeded by more than 0.5%.
  3. For operation at 1.2% O2 use automatic equipment to control O2 within the range 1.1-1.3%.

 

Kanzi

 

Recommended storage conditions for Kanzi

Air storage
With SmartFreshSM
Temp. oC Terminate Terminate Notes
3.0 – 3.5 Late December

 

Controlled atmosphere – Using a scrubber
With SmartFreshSM
Temp. oC % CO2 % O2 Terminate Notes Terminate Notes
3.0 – 3.5 <0.7 2.5 Late March 1, 2

 

Notes:

  1. Delay sealing for 21 days.
  2. Maintain <0.7% CO2 throughout.

 

Meridian (interim recommendations)

 

Recommended storage conditions for Meridian (interim recommendations)

Air storage
With SmartFreshSM
Temp. oC Terminate Terminate Notes
3.0 October Few results

 

Controlled atmosphere – Using a scrubber
With SmartFreshSM
Temp. oC % CO2 % O2 Terminate Notes Terminate Notes
3.5 – 4.0 <1 1.2 January 1, 4 Few results
3.5 – 4.0 5 1 March 2, 3, 4 Few results

 

There are no recommendations for storage in elevated CO2 only (un-scrubbed CA).

Notes:

  1. For operation at 1.2% O2 use automatic equipment to control O2 within the range 1.1-1.3%.
  2. For operation at 1% O2 use automatic equipment to control O2 within the range 0.9-1.1%.
  3. Ensure that the recommended CO2 level is not exceeded by more than 0.5%.
  4. Avoid late harvesting. Pick when fruit firmness is between 7-7.5 kg and monitor the condition of fruit in store at regular intervals. 

 

Red Pippin

 

Recommended storage conditions for Red Pippin

Air storage
With SmartFreshSM
Temp. oC Terminate Terminate Notes
1.0 – 1.5 January Few results

 

Controlled atmosphere – Using a scrubber
With SmartFreshSM
Temp. oC % CO2 % O2 Terminate Notes Terminate Notes
3.5 – 4.0 3 2 March 1, 2, 3 Few results
3.5 – 4.0 <1 1.2 April 3, 4, 5 Few results

 

There are no recommendations for storage in elevated CO2 only (un-scrubbed CA).

Notes:

  1. Ensure that the recommended CO2 level is not exceeded by more than 0.5%.
  2. Ensure that O2 level does not fall below 1.7% when controlling manually at 2% O2, aim to keep a mean of 2%.
  3. To achieve the green background ex-store required for Red Pippin avoid late picking.
  4. For operation at 1.2% O2 use automatic equipment to control O2 within the range 1.1-1.3%.
  5. There is a risk of scald during marketing.

 

Rubens

 

Recommended storage conditions for Rubens

Air storage
With SmartFreshSM
Temp. oC Terminate Terminate Notes
0.5 November December  1

 

Controlled atmosphere – Using a scrubber
With SmartFreshSM
Temp. oC % CO2 % O2 Terminate Notes Terminate Notes
0.5 < 1 1.5 February  2 Late March  1, 2

 

Notes:

  1. SmartFreshSM – Please refer to the SmartFreshSM recommendations issued each year by AgroFresh for the latest varietal information.
  2. Pull down to 2% O2 by respiration. Leave for 10 days before establishing final CA.

 

Spartan

 

Recommended storage conditions for Spartan

Air storage
With SmartFreshSM
Temp. oC Terminate Terminate Notes
0 – 0.5 January February 1, 4

 

Controlled atmosphere – Using a scrubber
With SmartFreshSM
Temp. oC % CO2 % O2 Terminate Notes Terminate Notes
1.5 – 2.0 <1 2 March 2, 4 Late March  1, 2, 4
1.5 – 2.0 6 2 May 2, 3, 4 Few results

 

Notes:

  1. SmartFreshSM – Please refer to the SmartFreshSM recommendations issued each year by AgroFresh for the latest varietal information.
  2. Ensure that O2 level does not fall below 1.7% when controlling manually at 2% O2, aim to keep a mean of 2%.
  3. Ensure that the recommended CO2 level is not exceeded by more than 0.5%.
  4. Risk of breakdown if calcium concentrations in the fruit at harvest are less than 4 mg 100g-1; apply calcium sprays and / or treat post-harvest with calcium chloride.

 

 

Worcester Pearmain

 

Recommended storage conditions for Worcester Pearmain

Air storage
With SmartFreshSM
Temp. oC Terminate Terminate Notes
0 – 1.0 December Few results 1

 

Controlled atmosphere – No scrubber
With SmartFreshSM
Temp. oC % CO2 Terminate Notes Terminate Notes
0.5 – 1.0 7 – 8 February 1 Few results

 

Controlled atmosphere – Using a scrubber
With SmartFreshSM
Temp. oC % CO2 % O2 Terminate Notes Terminate Notes
0.5 – 1.0 5 3 March 1, 2 Few results

 

Notes:

1. Risk of shrivel. Reduce this by loosely covering the top layer of fruit in each bin with polythene sheet.

2. Ensure that the recommended CO2 level is not exceeded by more than 0.5%.

 

Red Windsor

 

Recommended storage conditions for Red Windsor

Air storage
With SmartFreshSM
Temp. oC Terminate Terminate Notes
1.0 Late October Late November  1

 

Notes:

1. SmartFreshSM – Please refer to the SmartFreshSM recommendations issued each year by AgroFresh for the latest varietal information.

 

Zari

 

Recommended storage conditions for Zari

Air storage
With SmartFreshSM
Temp. oC Terminate Terminate Notes
0.5 October December  1

Notes:

1. SmartFreshSM – Please refer to the SmartFreshSM recommendations issued each year by AgroFresh for the latest varietal information.