Summer fruit tortrix moth (Adoxophyes orana Fischer von Röslerstamm)
Summer fruit tortrix adults Male (left) Female (right)
Summer fruit tortrix egg batch on leaf
Summer fruit tortrix larva
Small holes in fruit caused by larvae
Summer fruit tortrix leaf roll
The summer fruit tortrix moth is an important secondary pest of apples and pears, especially in eastern and south-eastern England. The life cycle involves two generations a year in the UK.
Short stalked varieties such as Bramley and Discovery are most susceptible, but all varieties of apple and pear may be attacked.
Damage to foliage is unimportant but damage to fruits occurs at three different times during fruit development.
Larvae of several leaf-rolling tortrix moths are very similar and are difficult to distinguish from each other. The pest should be monitored with pheromone traps weekly from petal fall of apple to the end of August.
The need to treat for the pest should be determined by high trap catches (>30 moths per trap per week) or damage the previous season, or by the presence of high populations of caterpillars in blossom trusses in spring before bloom.
Various insecticides that are approved for control of colding moth, totrix moths or for general caterpillar control are likely to control summer fruit tortrix moth but diflubenzuron (Dimilin) notably has poor efficacy against summer fruit tortrix moth and should not be used.
- The pest may be controlled by one or two sprays of fenoxycarb (Insegar) timed to coincide with the critical fifth instar development stage of overwintered caterpillars in spring.
- The aim is to eradicate overwintered caterpillars so that sprays against first and second generation caterpillars in summer are not necessary.
- On apple, the first spray should be applied shortly before bloom of Cox at the pink balloon growth stage.
- Where populations are high, a second spray should be applied at petal fall, as soon as bee activity has ceased.
- Fenoxycarb (Insegar) has a high risk to bees and must not be applied during flowering. The pre-blossom spray must be applied before early pollinators come into bloom.
- The grass should be cut before application to remove flowering plants. Avoid using fenoxycarb (Insegar) if neighbouring crops are flowering (e.g. oilseed rape).
- Alternatively, the pest may be controlled with indoxacarb (Steward), methoxyfenozide (Runner), spinosad (Tracer) or with Bacillus thuringiensis, applied to coincide with egg hatch usually in June.
- Bacillus thuringiensis is considered to be of only moderate efficacy. The first spray should be applied at the onset of egg hatch of the first generation. Further sprays should be applied at 7-10 day intervals until the egg hatch period has ended.
- Synthetic pyrethroids are highly effective but their use should be avoided as they are harmful to predatory mites and other beneficial insects.
- Chlorantraniliprole (Coragen) is also thought to offer incidental control when applied against codling moth.
- The summer fruit tortrix ganulovirus (Capex) is another option. Highly specific to summer fruit tortrix, it is ideal for use in organic and IPM production systems and has no harvest interval or buffer zone requirement.
- The onset of egg laying is taken as the date when the pheromone trap catch exceeds 5 moths/trap/week. If traps are only examined weekly, the date when this occurred can often be pin-pointed more accurately by examination of daily temperature records.
- The moths fly when dusk temperatures exceed 15 °C. The onset of the egg hatching period occurs 7-21 days later, depending on temperature. It can be accurately forecast from daily maximum and minimum air temperatures using the look-up table provided.
- The daily percentage egg development amounts are summed from the date of the onset of egg laying. When the sum reaches 90%, egg hatch is imminent and the first spray should be applied.
- A second generation occurs in August and September which can be damaging on later harvested varieties. The second generation may be controlled in the same way.
Insecticides approved on apple for control of codling, tortrix moths or caterpillars on apple which are likely to control summer fruit tortrix moth or offer incidental control when applied to control other pests
Choice of insecticides – efficacy factors
|Active ingredient||Trade name (examples)||Class1||Selectivity||Label rec’s2||Safety to Typhs||Suggested intervalbetweensprays(days)|
|adoxophyes orana granulovirus||Capex||microbial biocontrol||highly selective||sft||safe||u|
|Bacillus thuringiensis||Dipel||bacterialinsecticide||selective to caterpillars||c||safe||7|
|cypermethrin||various||pyrethroid||broad spectrum||c, cm, t||harmful||none stipulated|
|deltamethrin||Decis||pyrethroid||broad spectrum||cm, t||harmful||none stipulated|
|indoxacarb||Steward||oxadiazine||selective||c, cm, ftt, sft||u||10|
|spinosad||Tracer||neural blocker||selective||C, cm, ftt,sft||safe||u|
Choice of insecticides – Safety factor
Read and and follow the label before applying any sprays
|Hazards2||Harvest interval(days)||Max. no. sprays||Buffer zoneWidth (m)|
|Anticholin-esterase?||Humans||Fish & aquatic life||Bees|
|adoxophyes orana granulovirus||no||u||u||u||0||u||0|
|Keys: 1CSI=chitin synthesis inhibitor, JHA=juvenile hormone analogue
2c=caterpillars, cm=codling moth, ftt=fruit tree tortrix, sft=summer fruit tortrix, t=tortrix
3d=dangerous, ed=extremely dangerous, h=harmful, i=irritant, t=toxic, u=no hazard specified
Control in organic orchards
Summer fruit tortrix moth should be less problematic in organic orchards because populations are regulated by natural enemies, especially parasitic wasps and probably also because tree vigour is lower in organic orchards (see ‘Cultural control’).
- If control measures are necessary, sprays of Bacillus thuringiensis or spinosad (Tracer), should be applied in the same way as in conventional orchards (see above).
- In addition, the granulovirus (Capex) that is available to control summer fruit tortrix is highly specific to this pest. It is ingested by larval feeding. The larvae subsequently die and break down. Capex is ideal for use in organic and IPM systems of production. Approval should always be sought from organic certification bodies before use in organic production systems.